Gambling and organized crime - A review of the literature | Ferentzy | Journal of Gambling Issues

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Gambling Addiction and Problem Gambling

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Postby Grozshura В» 01.09.2019

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This paper was written to review the literature on the historical relationship between gambling and organized crime OC in the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries; examine the current state of affairs; point out gaps in the knowledge; and above all draw attention to this understudied topic.

The paper begins with an examination of the different sources of information examined, including law enforcement reports, participant observation studies, psychological and economic studies of the links between gambling and crime, historical studies of gambling and crime, and a number of commission reports.

The paper then provides an overview of OC and definitions of OC and gambling. This is followed by a discussion of the history of OC and its historic links to gambling. The paper ends with a discussion of the contemporary setting and directions for future research.

Our literature review was written in part to facilitate further research and thereby help rectify a shortcoming in overall efforts to understand and document gambling-related issues.

This project began when a colleague asked the second author for an academic reference on the relationship between problem gambling and organized crime OC. He could think of several films, but not of any academic paper that explicitly examined the topic. This paper is the result of an attempt to answer that request. Under Canadian law, only the government and its licensed agents , charities, and the horse-racing industry are legally entitled to offer gambling to the public. Although private bets between individuals e.

Privately run sports books, card rooms, numbers games lotteries , and unlicensed casinos are therefore illegal.

In the United States, legal gambling is often run privately but operates under license by the state. In Canada, Australia, the United States, and the United Kingdom, the laws regulating gambling deal mainly with controlling legal and illegal gambling operations rather than controlling the gambler per se. That is, the focus is on restricting the venue, not the player. An examination of the literature on gambling suggests that illegal gambling is often linked to OC.

In this paper, we examine the links between gambling and OC by reviewing the available literature. A gambling venue is a complex business that requires a number of specialized workers, such as dealers, maintenance workers, supervisors e.

Given the number of specialists, it is perhaps not surprising that illegal gambling venues have often been associated with OC. In fact, a certain level of organization would be necessary to run most illegal gambling operations. Illegal gambling venues often rely upon OC for finance, protection, security, and the collection of debts Asbury, ; de Champlain, OC, especially that dominated by Italian and Jewish figures, has long been discussed and portrayed, romanticized and vilified, in both books and films see Turner et al.

Any source dealing with OC in general is likely at least to touch on the theme of gambling, and the sources discussed in this paper are nowhere close to exhaustive in that respect.

Instead, we offer up the following as a sample of sources that deal directly with OC's relation to gambling. In the wake of the legalization of many forms of gambling throughout most of North America, it has become increasingly important to understand all aspects of gambling.

Given the ongoing importance of gambling profits to organized criminals, understanding the links between OC and gambling presents itself as a research priority. Four scientific journals are now publishing research specifically on problem gambling Journal of Gambling Studies, Journal of Gambling Issues, International Gambling Studies , and Gambling Research , plus several journals in the addictions field that regularly publish papers on problem gambling.

An examination of the content of these journals found very few references to OC. We have chosen this topic precisely because it has, despite all the folklore, received little in the way of serious scholarly attention.

It is our hope that this literature review will draw attention to this understudied topic and that our preliminary efforts will be of use to those endeavoring to fill this gap in the current state of knowledge. The length of the reference section of this paper suggests that in fact there is a rich literature on the link between gambling and OC. However, few of these sources specifically focus on the link. Instead we had to pull information together from a variety of sources. Information on the relationship between gambling and OC can be divided into six main types of sources:.

In Table 1 , the sources cited in this paper are grouped into these six general categories. None of these sources is ideal. Participant observation reports, such as Henry Hill's description of his life in a mafia family e. However, such accounts are often suspect given that personal contact is unavoidably opportunistic and anything but systematic, and also that authors may not be free to divulge everything they know.

The approach does, however, generate information that could not be gathered in any other way. Conversely, reliance upon reports and the testimonies of law enforcement officials entails, essentially, reliance upon information compiled for purposes other than scholarship: the apprehension of criminals.

This alone is a huge limit, as the information offered is invariably selective. Another limit involves an unavoidable professional bias: law enforcement agents will have emotional as well as budgetary reasons to exaggerate the extent of crime in any sphere. Without meaning to disparage any individual's integrity, one should at least take this possible bias into account when combing through such material. Academic research papers tend to focus on crime in general rather than on OC.

They often involve computing the number of charges laid in an area to determine the impact of a new gambling facility or estimate the portion of crimes by pathological gamblers committed to finance their addiction.

As such, they deal with the reported crime itself, rather than the organization that may lurk in the background. In addition, studies of prison samples typically combine pathological gamblers with subclinical problem gamblers and as such may not differentiate between the prey and the predators who take advantage of them.

Summaries of historical information range from the sensational to the scholarly. Commission reports often encompass a range of information from anecdotes to statistical summaries. Their information is usually second-hand in that it summarizes information from other sources; however, these reports are invaluable for bringing together the various sources of information and for their role in setting policy.

In addition, we discuss a few of the films that have examined OC. In this paper, we only examine films that are largely based on historical evidence. These are used, in part, to add color to the paper, but also to highlight popular conceptions.

The latter, if nothing else, has generated an atmosphere that may have affected scholarship. This literature review has been designed to provide the reader with a range of sources and hence the opportunity to reach informed conclusions.

This review has eight sections: 1. An overview of OC; 2. Definitions of OC and gambling; 3. History; 4. Gambling and its relation to crime in general; 5. Scope and nature of OC involvement; 6. Social impact; 7. The contemporary setting; and 8. Directions for future research. Organized gangs of criminals, such as pirates, have existed throughout history Banting, However, in the early s, the well-known Kefauver report on OC U. Senate Special Committee, identified what was then a new, and sophisticated, approach to criminal behavior.

While texts emphasizing the continuity of OC practices throughout the last few centuries can be found Asbury, ; Banting, ; Johnson, ; Peterson, , and though some continuity is clearly undeniable, current discussions of OC tend to focus on this early and midth century manifestation of OC.

The new form of organization emerged primarily during alcohol prohibition and often achieved monopoly control over illicit products and services such as drugs, gambling, and prostitution. It was a form of criminal organization made possible through advances in travel and communication technologies, such as the wire services integral to bookmaking.

By its nature, OC is opportunistic. According to Schelling , criminals organize in response to how strongly the laws against an activity are enforced. If a product is too widely available, criminal monopolies cannot be formed. In this view, there is some optimal degree of enforcement that attracts criminal monopoly. If a product is in high demand, but is prohibited, contracts along the supply chain from primary producer to consumer cannot be enforced through the normal legal channels, creating a power vacuum that is filled by OC Skaperdas, One can also view OC's role in economic terms.

For instance, Boulding , though not directly focusing on OC, has discussed in general terms how the absence of legitimate enforcement of contracts in spheres where there is no legal legitimacy provides an opportunity for enforcement by alternative actors. In addition, immigrant and other socially disadvantaged groups may not feel that they have access to legal authorities and government services.

The police and the justice system are often viewed at best as indifferent to their welfare or even as agents of repression Skaperdas, As a result, the people may be willing to cooperate with an alternative system of ethnically based gangs.

There were important differences between the new organized groups that emerged at the beginning of the 20th century and older forms of OC, such as pirates, including the hierarchical structure of the newer organization, the specialization of members into different roles, and the strict code of conduct observed by members de Champlain, As well, the management of the family was usually not involved directly in crime, thereby insulating the management from police authorities.

Interestingly, some authors have argued that the very existence of the Mafia is debatable Albanese, ; Drzazga, , a view also expressed by some alleged members of the organization. Understanding OC requires a grasp of its structures, networks, and hierarchies. Contrary to some cinematic depictions e. Instead, membership and progress through the hierarchy was determined by merit. At the bottom were the associates who worked for the various enterprises run by the family.

Close associates would run businesses and pay their tribute to the local family. A soldier was an official member of the family. Men of Italian descent would be invited to join a crime family based on merit and loyalty. To become a soldier or a made man , the initiate would have to swear an oath of secrecy and loyalty. The soldiers worked under the directions of a capo. The capo in turn reported to the underboss, who reported directly to the boss. The boss ran the family with the help of the underboss and consigliere an advisor.

The consigliere was also available to the ordinary member as an advisor or advocate. In some cases, the local boss would report to the boss of another family usually one of the New York families , and all families respected the commission of families also known as the Syndicate.

De Champlain's description of the organization of the Italian Mafia is based on accounts by former members and associates who had turned state's evidence and then written accounts of their criminal activities e. Some organized criminal groups are easily identified e. Some Italians have rightly objected to the strong emphasis placed on Italian organized criminals in the media Albanese, ; Drzazga, ; Woodiwiss,

Pieces of a Dream: A Story of Gambling, time: 48:50
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Re: gambling addiction hotline contraband full

Postby Tolar В» 01.09.2019

Vontraband first assignment sent him to Korea as a radio operator. Anderson did a close study of one OC group and found the major activities to be gambling and loansharking, with the former clearly dominant http://enjoystake.site/games-online-free/fun-online-games-free-1.php, as already mentioned, loansharking generally depends upon gambling. The soldiers worked under the directions of a capo.

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Re: gambling addiction hotline contraband full

Postby Maulkis В» 01.09.2019

Are they beneficial to the economy under some circumstances? Attorney Stephen R. As mentioned in the introduction, police sources often emphasize a link between addictuon and gambling with little qualification Edelman, ; Florida Law Enforcement Releases, Ochrym has argued that nongaming tourism would have similar consequences for a community Ochrym,p.

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