Problem gambling and gaming in elite athletes

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Gambling addiction gymnast

Postby Dokora В» 24.06.2019

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High-level sports have been described as a risk situation for mental health problems and substance misuse. This, however, has been sparsely studied for problem gambling, and it is unknown whether problem gaming, corresponding to the tentative diagnosis of internet gaming disorder, may be overrepresented in athletes.

This study aimed to study the prevalence and correlates of problem gambling and problem gaming in national team-level athletes. Moderately elevated rates of problem gambling were demonstrated, however with large gender differences, and interestingly, with comparable prevalence in team sports and in other sports.

Problem gaming did not seem more common than in the general population, but an association between problem gambling and problem gaming was demonstrated. In recent years, mental health issues specific to athletes, including addictive disorders, have been highlighted.

In general, it has been suggested that the prevalence of mental health problems in elite sports seems to mirror society as a whole Rice et al. More specifically, higher prevalence of risky drinking in athletes was explained by higher rates of risk-taking and sensation-seeking behaviour Mastroleo et al. Furthermore, the context of high-level sports has been described as a potential risk situation for hazardous use of alcohol and other substances Veliz et al. Participating in youth sports has been associated with increased alcohol problems among adolescents, although associations are complex and may be related to other characteristics in a young individual's life Martin, ; Mays et al.

Somewhat in contrast to this notion, data has demonstrated a healthier life-style and less substance use in high school students participating in sports, compared to non-participants Pate et al. Altogether, is has been suggested that the context of competitive sports increases vulnerability to addictive behaviours, however data is so far limited and inconsistent. Gambling and problem gambling, a condition associated with financial consequences and severe mental health complications Ronzitti et al.

This potential link between sports and gambling has frequently been reported in media revealing sports stars and their addictive gambling, such as the Swedish multiple Olympic and world champion medallist in table tennis, Jan-Owe Waldner Moldovan, Altogether, several factors suggest that the context of competitive sports may be a potential risk factor for problem gambling.

More recently, there has been an increasing involvement of gambling marketing in sports Lopez-Gonzalez and Griffiths, ; gambling operators have been reported to represent some of the most common sponsorships in national and club level sports Maher et al. Also, the age span of elite level athletes i. However, despite this potential link between sports and gambling, studies in the area have been few. Stillman and co-workers reported that problem gambling may be more prevalent in athletes than in the general population Stillman et al.

Grall-Bronnec and colleagues reported 8. However, no research has studied whether problem gambling differs between team sports and individual sports, a relevant research question based on the large involvement of gambling marketing in particularly team sports Maher et al. In the Diagnostic Systematic Manual DSM-5 , in , internet gaming disorder was introduced as a tentative disorder added to a list of disorders requiring more research American Psychiatric Association, , and the recent inclusion of gaming disorder in the International Classification of Diagnoses ICD, World Health Organization, further calls for an increased attention on problem gaming in epidemiological and clinical research.

Problem gaming has been demonstrated to be associated with negative health outcomes Mentzoni et al. While the study of problem gambling in athletes has been sparse, no studies have addressed whether elite athletes' gaming and problematic gaming may be more common than in the general population. Based on the research gaps in this area, we aimed to study the prevalence of both gambling and gaming in elite athletes, and whether these problem behaviours may be related to the type of sport, as well as to other potential risk factors, including gender, treatment seeking for mental health problems and hazardous drinking.

The present study was part of a larger project addressing mental health in elite athletes. An online survey was sent to individuals who applied for a student scholarship for university studies and have a history of elite sport and national team participation; thus, subjects addressed in the present study are athletes in sports included in the Swedish Sports Federation, participate on national team level, and conduct post-high school studies.

The study and its questionnaire were completely separated from the application process, and only used this for the selection of e-mail addresses for recruitment. The definition of an elite athlete has been under debate Swann et al.

In the present study elite athletes are defined by a history of representing the national team in their sports. The study was distributed electronically as a web survey. In total, The overall project addressed psychological distress and mental health problems in a number of aspects. The present study focuses on problematic gambling and gaming, and their correlates, including treatment seeking for mental health problems and hazardous drinking, representing the measure of substance-related addictive behaviour assumed to be the most common in the present setting.

The present study included the following assessments:. Problem gambling was defined as the endorsement of one or more of the three items. Relatively few studies have reported an established cut-off separating problem gaming from non-problematic gaming. In the present study, we used both the absolute value of the added item scores, and a suggested cut-off for problem gaming, i.

A more concise definition of a probable gaming disorder has been applied in the literature, comprising the fulfilment of all seven items, but due to the low number of subjects with a problematic gaming behaviour in the present study, this narrower definition was dropped.

In the present study, we applied established cut-off values for hazardous drinking from these three consumption items; five points or more for men and four points or more for women. One item included in the study described whether an individual had sought treatment for a mental health problem. In addition, age, gender, and the type of sport were included. Type of sport was intended to separate team sports from individual sports, thereby comparing the type of athletes assesses in a previous study Grall-Bronnec et al.

Respondents had an average age of Among the 23 subjects endorsing at least one of the CLiP criteria, 11 endorsed only one criterion, 10 endorsed two criteria, and two individuals endorsed all three criteria. In logistic regression, including the only two variables significantly associated with problem gambling in the univariate analyses, male gender OR The median GASA score in the data set was 7 inter-quartile range 7—8, range 7—22 , and significantly higher in men mean 9.

GASA was not significantly higher in problems gamblers mean As only one variable significantly separated problem gamers from other participants, no multivariate analysis was carried out Table 2. The present study demonstrated a moderately elevated prevalence of problem gambling in this population of elite athletes applying for a post-high school scholarship. One important finding is the particularly large difference in problem gambling prevalence between men and women.

Moreover, the results indicated an association between video game behaviour, including problem gaming, and problem gambling, whereas problem gaming did not appear to be more common than in the general population. Despite difficulties in comparison across studies and settings, this prevalence is at the upper end of the range reported from the general population, where lifetime rates of problem gambling have ranged from 0. Previous research in the Swedish context with general population surveys, although using other instruments, reported lifetime prevalence of problem gambling to be 2.

Although, based on general population data that indicate a higher prevalence in young adults Abbott et al. Also, the present prevalence may be comparable to that reported by Grall-Bronnec current or past problem gambling in 8.

Gender differences in gambling behaviour and in problem gambling prevalence are well-known in the general population and in clinical settings.

However, although the absolute numbers are low, the prevalence gap between males and females in the present study appears to be particularly large compared to other cohorts assessed for problem gambling, and other and larger studies should study whether this large gender difference in athletes can be confirmed.

One important — and somewhat unexpected — finding is the lack of difference in problem gambling between athletes in team sports, such as team ball sports, and other sports.

Previous data in this area is scarce. Grall-Bronnec's study identified that betting on your own team was a risk factor of problem gambling and although that study included only athletes in team ball sports, this association still could be suspected to increase gambling problems more in team players Grall-Bronnec et al.

Previous data has indicated that, e. The proportion of problem gamblers in team sports and individual sports was close to identical, making it unlikely that a difference would be seen even in a larger data set. Altogether, in regard of practical use of the data it should be acknowledged that the results from the present study suggest that male athletes, regardless of the type of sport, may be at risk for problematic gambling, and these issues should be raised also in sports less typically associated with a high involvement of gambling marketing.

Likewise, in the present study, no association was seen between problem gambling and hazardous alcohol drinking. This is a somewhat surprising finding, since, Huang and co-workers presented a clear association between alcohol drinking and problem gambling in high school athletes Huang et al. In young individuals in the general population, alcohol drinking and problem gambling are associated Barnes et al. In the general population, it has been described that the association between problem gambling and alcohol can be seen only in men Pilver et al.

Drinking patterns in athletes may be rather complex, possibly with a seasonal pattern affecting alcohol intake during the competitive season. Interestingly, in contrast, the literature suggests that young athletes actually have a higher alcohol consumption than their non-athlete counterparts Diehl et al. It remains to be understood whether the lack of association is unique to the present group of athletes recruited among applicants for a post-high school scholarship, or whether it can be confirmed in other groups of elite athletes.

While this is — to the best of the authors' knowledge — the first study describing problem gaming in a sample of elite athletes, the prevalence of problem gaming was comparable to general population data.

Two Norwegian general population surveys have demonstrated prevalence rates of problem gaming of four Mentzoni et al. Altogether, although few comparison groups are available, the gaming data available from the present study does not demonstrated an elevated prevalence of problem gaming in elite athletes. In addition to male gender, the only variable separating problem gamblers from other subjects in the study was the association with gaming addiction scores. The potential link between problematic video gaming and problem gaming for money is a novel area of research, so far with relatively limited data.

In adolescents, population data has indicated that an association between gambling and gaming on its own is unlikely, and that the statistical association may be related mainly to confounding variables Delfabbro et al. In the present study, gambling and gaming were indeed associated, also when controlling for gender. While the prevalence estimate among this cohort of athletes was low for problem gaming, more research is needed in order to deepen the understanding of the potential interplay between these two phenomena in this specific context where a wining mind-set is fostered, reinforced and praised.

The present study has a number of limitations. One limitation is the use of self-reported health variables rather than a more objective or face-to-face assessment. Although novel in its design with respect to problem gambling and the inclusion of problem gaming in the study of elite athletes' health, it is limited by the low prevalence of a positive problem gaming screen, meaning that the study would have needed to be larger in order to demonstrate risk factors for problem gaming in this kind of population.

Also, in view of the results presented here, more gambling-specific measurements would have been valuable to include, such as the money or time spent on gambling. In addition, the present study addresses elite athletes, but only those who applied for a scholarship for studying post high-school.

This implicate that the cohort of athletes included may be biased towards a higher level of academic interest and performance, such that participants may be more highly motivated than other groups of athletes. More research is needed in order to study subgroups of athletes with respect to the risk of problem gambling and problem gaming, with larger cohorts allowing for a larger number of comparisons. In conclusion, the present study, from a larger project focusing on elite athletes' mental health, demonstrated rates of problem gambling comparable to those of the general population.

It demonstrated a strong association between male gender and problem gambling, and an association with problematic video gaming, although not with the level of gaming behaviour itself, and without association with hazardous alcohol drinking or treatment for psychological distress. The measure of problem gaming in athletes is a novel approach, but its prevalence in the present setting was low, and associated mainly with problem gambling. Although comparable to general population data, the prevalence of problem gambling in elite athletes is at the upper end of general population prevalence estimates, and with a large gender difference.

Involvement in high-level sports may need to be addressed in clinical settings, as well as the link between problem gaming and problem gambling. Parts of the research work was financed by Dr. This funding is general and unrelated to the present particular study. The funding source had no influence on, and no involvement in, the present study. Parts of the research work was financed by Swedish Sport Federation, the umbrella organization of sports associations in Sweden.

This organization was partly involved in the overall background idea of the research, and the co-author GK is employed partly by this organization. However, the organization was not involved in the interpretation of data or the results. All three authors contributed significantly to the research idea and the interpretations of findings. The authors report no conflicts of interest related to the present research project.

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This implicate that the cohort of athletes included may be biased towards a higher level of academic interest and performance, such that participants addiction be more http://enjoystake.site/top-games/top-games-ejection-vs-1.php motivated than other groups gymnast athletes. Their addiction seems obvious, at least to outsiders. Http://enjoystake.site/poker-games/poker-games-kazan-play-1.php differences in gambling wddiction and in problem gambling prevalence are well-known in the general population and in clinical settings. Respondents had an average age of gambling

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Re: gambling addiction gymnast

Postby Arasar В» 24.06.2019

Furthermore, gymnast context of high-level sports has been described as a potential risk situation for hazardous use of alcohol and just click for source substances Veliz et al. The measure of problem gaming in athletes is a novel approach, but its prevalence in the present setting was low, and associated mainly with problem gambling. But http://enjoystake.site/2017/gambling-movies-muster-2017.php gambling more, and therefore risking more, becomes necessary to attain the same intense psychological high. One item included in the gamgling described whether an individual had sought treatment for a addiction health problem.

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