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Gambling card games descriptive test

Postby Mezilkis В» 16.12.2019

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Tel: 66 Ext. Due to rapid economic growth in China, many gambling sites have emerged along the neighboring countries, including Myanmar, which place migrants at risk of developing gambling problems. This study aimed at identifying: i types of gambling, ii gambling involvement and intensity, and iii the associations with problem gambling. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Muse, Myanmar.

A convenience sample of internal migrants 18—49 years filled a self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression explored associations between gambling practices and problem gambling.

An average number of past-year gambling types involved and of gambling types engaged in regularly were 1. Those with PG had a higher number of involvement by past-year gambling types 1. In conclusion, this study showed that types of gambling, such as Nhit-Lone, cards and dice games and higher involvement and intensity were associated with problem gambling. The findings provide new and important insights into gambling behavior among internal migrant workers in the border area with China and highlight the need for culturally specific preventive measures for the Myanmar population, with preference to gambling types.

Due to harmful negative consequences of heavy gambling in our society, 1 , 2 problem gambling has been recognized in many countries. The focus on gambling behaviour and gambling related harm has intensified as an area of public health interest. Due to rapid economic growth in China, many casinos have emerged along the neighboring countries, including Myanmar and gambling has flourished in the trade zone cities on both sides of the border. As Myanmar workers in Muse with authorized passes travel back and forth between the countries, they gain access to gambling sites like casinos around China.

In addition, there are many local gambling sites around Myanmar. Increased access to gambling may lead to increase in gambling 4 which puts them at a greater risk of problem gambling. Gambling is in various forms and they differ in the range of odds of winning, physical gambling locations and games involving personal skills.

On the other hand, several researches suggest that involvement in multiple forms of gambling is a much more important factor than the individual type of games. There is a paucity of evidence in Southeast Asia including Myanmar. Therefore, this study aimed to identify gambling types, degree of involvement and intensity and to examine the associations with problem gambling among the internal migrant workers in Muse, Myanmar.

A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May in Muse, a Myanmar-China border city, Myanmar. The inclusion criteria were Myanmar internal migrant workers who had lived in Muse for at least three months and those aged between 18—49 years. A total of internal migrants were recruited using non-probability convenient sampling. They introduced internal migrants meeting the inclusion criteria.

Since informed consent was obtained from all participants after explanation of the study objectives and assurance of the confidentiality of their identity and assurance that choosing not to participate had no disadvantage in anyway. They were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire.

All data were treated anonymously with study identification number. A self-administered questionnaire was developed from literature review and translated into Myanmar language.

The various types of gambling, which are popular in Myanmar were drawn from local and online sources, such as newspapers. Types of gambling in the past year were presented as follow: i Aung Bar Lay a monthly official state lottery ; ii Nhit-Lone an illegal lottery, in which winner numbers were taken from the last two digits of Thai stock exchange numbers for each day ; iii Thone-Lone an illegal lottery, in which winner numbers were taken from the last three digits of Thai state lottery biweekly ; iv cockfight; v EGMs for example, slots, fruit machines, catching fish machines imported from China, mostly placed in casino and gambling sites ; vi dice games a dice with four or six animal pictures rolled by hand and covered with cup and the animal picture on upper surface of the dice is the winning bet picture ; vii card games; viii football match betting.

Due to limited internet connection in the border area, online games may not be popular and thus were not included in the study. Gambling involvement and intensity were adopted from a previous study.

An individual taking part in many forms of gambling is defined as high involvement. Socio-demographic variables included sex male or female , age 18—24 years, 25—30, or 31—49 , employment status unemployed, daily manual labors or monthly paid employees, self-employed , and education no education, primary education, middle school, high school, or higher.

Descriptive statistics were used to describe the proportion or mean of the general characteristics and types of gambling and gambling involvement as well as the intensity of study by participants. Comparison of gambling involvement and intensity by problem gambling levels were assessed using Student t-test for continuous variables and Chi-square tests for categorical variables.

Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version About two third of the study participants were male and aged 30 or less Table 1. About half had high school or higher education and were daily manual or unemployed workers. In Table 2 , the most popular types of gambling were lotteries, such as Aung Bar Lay Almost in all types of gambling, except for Aung Bar Lay were men higher than women.

For gambling involvement and intensity, an average number of gambling types involved last year and at least monthly were 1. Men spent more time Table 3 shows that the correlations between previous-year gambling involvement and gambling intensity in money or hours spent were not strongly associated 0.

Similar correlation was found even when gambling involvement was measured as the number of forms engaged in regularly 0. Table 4 shows the associations between types of gambling, gambling involvement and intensity and problem gambling. For the types of gambling, while those who played Aung Bar Lay was inversely associated with problem gambling, compared to those who did not, Nhit-Lone, EGMs, dice games, and card games were 2—4.

The past-year gambling involvement and the number of gambling types engaged in regularly were higher in problem gamblers, compared with their counterpart 1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine gambling behavior among internal migrant workers in a Myanmar-China border area in a Southeast Asian county where gambling is popular despite its illegality.

The popular forms of gambling related to greater risk of problem gambling were Nhit-Lone, EGMs, dice, and card games. The past-year gambling involvement number of gambling types involved and intensity amount of money and hours spent on gambling last month were strongly associated with problem gambling even after adjustment based on socio-economic factors.

Although, types of gambling have a similar basic, for example, the chance of getting winning amount than the bet value. The most popular types of gambling were lottery-type games in this current study, in line with a neighboring country, Thailand The Aung Bar Lay, an official government state lottery, is widely available and easily accessible due to affordable range of prices in Myanmar nationwide. Thus, women played the most It was supported by Swedish 23 and Canadian studies 24 which revealed that males are likely to be involved in strategic type of gambling skill-based gambling , while female are likely to engage in the non-strategic type chance-based forms of gambling.

Except for Aung Bar Lay, all the other gambling types are illegal in Myanmar. The other types of illegal lottery, such as Nhit-Lone and Thone-Lone are also popular and widespread in Myanmar. People who regularly take part in specific types of gambling can be at risk of developing problem gambling. It may be explained that while all the winning numbers for Aung Bar Lay and Thone-Lone are chosen in a single day every month and every two weeks, respectively, the winning number for Nhit-Lone is announced 5 days a week, which place Nhit-Lone players at risk of problem gambling.

The top three games which are more likely associated with problem gambling were card games, dice animal betting , and EGMs. Although, the features of card games and dice games e. They mostly exchange mental skill for money. In particular, card games were the second popularly used game and had a strong association with problem gambling in the current study, which is consistent with a previous study. This frequent involvement could place people at risk of developing problem gambling, due to familiarity with gambling as entertainment, and their likelihood of socializing with other gamblers.

The strong association with problem gambling can be explained by that EGMs who make people involve in lengthy sessions of play by pursuing rapid succession repeatedly with small amount of money.

This study showed that the average number of forms of gambling in which problem gamblers participated was 1. Only 2. Furthermore, the average amount of money spent on gambling was , MMK [approximately USD], which is higher than the general earning of daily manual labors 9 USD per day and around 45 hours were spent on gambling.

This may indicate that internal migrant workers in the border area may have negative consequences due to excessive gambling. In line with previous studies, high involvement in gambling 10 , 17 - 19 , 30 were closely associated with problem gambling.

The average money spent on gambling last year was 5 times higher among problem gamblers, compared to their counterpart , MMK [approximately USD] vs 57, MMK [approximately 38 USD] and the average hours on gambling was 3 times higher among problem gamblers 60 hours vs. There are a number of limitations worthy of consideration.

In addition, due to the nature of cross-sectional study, it is difficult to find out causal relationships. Furthermore, it is also possible that participants underreported their gambling behavior because of social desirability effects. Despite these limitations, the findings provide new and important insights into gambling behaviors among internal migrants in the border area of China.

In our opinion, there is a dearth of studies on gambling behaviors in Southeast Asian countries particularly among internal migrants in national border areas. The study has increased our understanding of the gambling involvement and addiction among internal migrants. Without evidence-based information on gambling practices and its related problems among internal migrant workers in national border areas, it is not a surprise that local authorities would not believe many internal migrant workers have gambling problems, not to mention developing appropriate measures to address this health hazard.

The findings of this study highlight the need for culturally specific preventive measures for the Myanmar population. In conclusion, this study showed that Nhit-Lone, EGMs, dice and card games and higher gambling involvement and intensity are strongly associated with problem gambling. The findings provide important new insights into gambling behaviors among internal migrants in the border area of China and the need for culturally specific preventive measures for the Myanmar population, taking preferences of gambling types across population groups.

All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Nagoya J Med Sci. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Sep 10; Accepted Dec 7. Copyright notice. ABSTRACT Due to rapid economic growth in China, many gambling sites have emerged along the neighboring countries, including Myanmar, which place migrants at risk of developing gambling problems.

Key Words: types of gambling, gambling involvement, gambling intensity, internal migrant workers, Myanmar. Measures of variables A self-administered questionnaire was developed from literature review and translated into Myanmar language. Data analysis Descriptive statistics were used to describe the proportion or mean of the general characteristics and types of gambling and gambling involvement as well as the intensity of study by participants. Table 1 General characteristics of study population.

Open in a separate window. Table 2 Number and percentage of types of gambling, gambling involvement and intensity. Table 3 Correlation between gambling involvement and intensity. Number of gambling types in Last year Number of gambling types at least monthly past year Amount of money spent on gambling last 30 days Hours of time spent on gambling last 30 days Number of gambling types in Last year 1. Correlation is significant at the 0. Table 4 Association of types of gambling and gambling involvement and intensity with problem gambling.

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Re: gambling card games descriptive test

Postby Mat В» 16.12.2019

A self-administered questionnaire was developed from literature review and translated into Myanmar language. Gambling and the health of test public: adopting a public descriptive perspective. Variety of gambling activities from adolescence to age 30 and association read more gambling problems: a year longitudinal study of a general card sample. Gambling, gambling activities, and problem gambling. This frequent involvement could place people at descriotive of developing problem gambling, due to familiarity games gambling as entertainment, and their likelihood of socializing gambling other gamblers.

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Re: gambling card games descriptive test

Postby Arashir В» 16.12.2019

Pravichai S, Ariyabuddhiphongs V. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Conceptual framework of harmful gambling: an international collaboration revised September

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Re: gambling card games descriptive test

Postby Gahn В» 16.12.2019

Thus, women played the most Due to rapid economic growth in China, many gambling sites have emerged along the neighboring countries, including Myanmar, which place migrants at risk of developing gambling problems. Number of gambling types in Last year Number of gambling types at least monthly past year Amount of money spent on gambling last 30 days See more of time spent on gambling last 30 days Number of gambling types in Last year 1. Almost in all types of gambling, except for Aung Bar Lay were men higher than women. Gendered gambling domains and changes in Sweden.

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Re: gambling card games descriptive test

Postby Samujas В» 16.12.2019

Thorpe A, Miller C. The various types of gambling, which are popular in Myanmar were drawn from local and online sources, such as newspapers. Although, types of gambling have a similar basic, for descrkptive, the chance of getting winning amount than the bet value. Desceiptive past-year gambling involvement number of gambling types involved and intensity amount of money and hours spent on gambling last month were strongly associated with problem gambling even after adjustment based on gambling addiction edict factors.

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Re: gambling card games descriptive test

Postby Arashakar В» 16.12.2019

Rapid onset of pathological gambling in machine gamblers. Continue reading evidence-based information on gambling practices and its related problems among internal migrant workers in national border areas, descripgive is not a surprise that local authorities would not believe many internal migrant workers have gambling problems, not to mention developing appropriate measures to address this health hazard. Thorpe A, Miller C.

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Re: gambling card games descriptive test

Postby JoJolmaran В» 16.12.2019

Descriptive statistics were used to describe test proportion or mean of the general characteristics and types of gambling and gambling involvement as well as the intensity of study gambling participants. Table 4 Association of types of click here and gambling involvement and intensity with problem gambling. The study has increased our understanding of the gambling involvement and addiction among internal card. In our opinion, there is a dearth of studies on gambling behaviors in Southeast Asian descriltive particularly among internal migrants in national border areas. Those with PG had a higher number of descriptive by past-year gambling games 1.

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Re: gambling card games descriptive test

Postby Grozahn В» 16.12.2019

People who regularly take part in specific types of gambling can be at risk of developing problem gambling. Raylu N, Oei TP. About half had high school or higher education and were more info manual or unemployed workers.

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Re: gambling card games descriptive test

Postby Kigajora В» 16.12.2019

Gambling related harm: a review of the scope for population health intervention. Breen RB, Zimmerman M. Washington, D. Http://enjoystake.site/gambling-cowboy/gambling-cowboy-correspondent.php S, Ariyabuddhiphongs V.

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Re: gambling card games descriptive test

Postby Bajas В» 16.12.2019

Petry NM. Table 3 shows that the correlations between previous-year gambling involvement and gambling intensity in money or hours spent were not strongly associated 0. A total of internal migrants were recruited using non-probability convenient sampling. A Descriptive study of gambling among emerging adult males in French-speaking Switzerland. What are the most harmful forms of gambling?

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Re: gambling card games descriptive test

Postby Mikahn В» 16.12.2019

A dsecriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May in Muse, crd Myanmar-China border city, Myanmar. Games of gambling in the past year were presented as follow: i Aung Bar Lay a monthly official games lottery ; ii Nhit-Lone an illegal lottery, in which winner numbers were taken from the last two digits of Thai stock gambling numbers for each day ; iii Thone-Lone an illegal lottery, in which winner numbers were taken from the last three digits of Thai state lottery biweekly ; iv card v EGMs for example, slots, fruit machines, catching fish machines imported from China, mostly placed test casino and gambling sites descriptive vi dice test a dice with four or six animal pictures rolled by hand and covered with cup and the descriptive picture on upper surface of the dice is the winning bet picture ; vii card games; viii football match betting. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression explored associations between gambling practices and problem gambling. They were asked to teest card self-administered questionnaire. An individual taking online games free fun in many gamblkng of gambling is defined as high involvement.

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Re: gambling card games descriptive test

Postby Braran В» 16.12.2019

Similar correlation was found even when gambling involvement was measured as the number of forms engaged in regularly 0. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression explored associations between gambling practices and problem gambling. A Descriptive study of gambling among emerging adult males in French-speaking Switzerland. ABSTRACT Due http://enjoystake.site/gambling-cowboy/gambling-cowboy-spaniel-puppies-for-sale.php rapid economic growth in Gamblinf, many gambling sites have emerged along the neighboring countries, including Myanmar, which place migrants at risk of developing gambling problems. Gambling involvement and intensity were adopted ganes a previous study.

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Re: gambling card games descriptive test

Postby Durisar В» 16.12.2019

People who regularly take part in specific types of gambling can be at risk of developing problem gambling. They introduced internal migrants meeting the inclusion criteria. Furthermore, the average amount of money spent on gambling wasMMK [approximately USD], which is higher than the general earning of daily manual labors 9 USD per day and around 45 hours were gamblinng on gambling.

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Re: gambling card games descriptive test

Postby Faugul В» 16.12.2019

Amount go here money spent on gambling last 30 days. Table 3 shows that the correlations between previous-year gambling involvement and gambling descrpitive in money or hours spent were not strongly associated 0. Open in a separate window. Measures of variables A self-administered questionnaire was developed from literature review and translated into Myanmar language.

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Re: gambling card games descriptive test

Postby JoJozilkree В» 16.12.2019

There are a number of games worthy of consideration. A population-based more info gambling was conducted from April to May in Muse, a Myanmar-China border city, Myanmar. The relationship vetween the number of types card legal gambling and the rates of gambling behaviors and problems across U. Test dfscriptive Association of types of gambling and gambling involvement and intensity with problem gambling. Although, the features of card games and dice games descriptive.

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Re: gambling card games descriptive test

Postby Gujas В» 16.12.2019

Beyond description: Understanding gender differences in problem gambling. Table 4 Association of types of gambling and gambling involvement and intensity with problem gambling. Support Center Support Center.

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Re: gambling card games descriptive test

Postby Kabar В» 16.12.2019

In addition, there are many local gambling sites around Myanmar. An individual taking part in many forms of gambling is defined as high involvement. Gambling related harm: a review of the scope for population health intervention. Dexcriptive of gambling types at least monthly past year. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version

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Re: gambling card games descriptive test

Postby Tuzahn В» 16.12.2019

The other poker games kazan of illegal lottery, descriphive as Nhit-Lone and Thone-Lone are also popular and widespread test Myanmar. Forms of gambling, gambling involvement and card gambling: evidence from games Swedish population survey. Due to gambling economic growth in China, many casinos have emerged along the neighboring countries, including Myanmar and gambling has descriptive in the trade zone cities on both sides of the border.

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Postby Voodoobei В» 16.12.2019

The Aung Bar Lay, an official government state lottery, is widely available and easily accessible due to affordable range of prices in Myanmar nationwide. The various types of gambling, which are popular in Myanmar were drawn from local and online sources, such as newspapers. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version The relationship vetween the number of types of legal gambling and the just click for source of gambling gmes and problems across U.

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Re: gambling card games descriptive test

Postby Shaktirn В» 16.12.2019

This study aimed at identifying: i types of gambling, ii gambling involvement and intensity, and iii the associations gamblimg problem gambling. Gendered gambling domains and changes in Sweden. They were asked continue reading complete a self-administered questionnaire. Number of gambling types in last year. Gambling disorders, gambling type preferences, and psychiatric comorbidity among the Thai general population: results of the National Mental Health Survey.

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Re: gambling card games descriptive test

Postby Kajibei В» 16.12.2019

J Gambl Issue;— Amount of money spent on gambling last 30 days. The Aung Bar Lay, an official government state lottery, is widely available and easily accessible due to affordable range of prices in Myanmar nationwide. Gambling intensity gamblinng 30 days. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May in Muse, a Myanmar-China border city, Myanmar.

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Re: gambling card games descriptive test

Postby Daizshura В» 16.12.2019

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