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Gambling definition

Ethical Gambling: A Necessary New Point of View of Gambling in Public Health Policies

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Gambling definition elemental science

Postby Arazilkree В» 27.02.2020

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Although many governments and companies have implemented strategic plans based on models of RG, this has not served to prevent one of the major public health problems caused by gambling, which is gambling disorder. On the contrary, gambling has increased globally, the initiatives based on RG models have had little relation to the research evidence on best practices to prevent harms 5 , 6 and the independent gambling researchers that could improve RG initiatives are often ignored by policy makers 7 — 9.

For Livingstone and Woolley 10 , the term is limited by its lack of clear goals and terminological clarity. The purpose of EG is to create the necessary environmental conditions that permit gambling as an economic activity, but with the primary objective of preventing potential health risks, primarily gambling disorder. In order to be able to understand the concept EG, it is necessary to consider the following assumptions with regard to gambling 11 :.

Gambling is a major economic activity in societies where it is allowed. In general terms, gambling may be thought of as a zero-sum game in which the gambling company is one player and the gamblers constitute the other.

Gambling is designed in such a way that the expected value, also known as mathematical expectation, is favorable for the company that manages the game.

Therefore, the more money spent on gambling, the greater the probability that the companies managing the games will win. That is, the more money played, the greater the profits obtained.

Gambling is a potentially addictive activity because: a it activates the same reward circuits in the brain as drugs and b the clinical characteristics of gambling disorder are the same as those of drug addictions or alcoholism Gambling disorder is a serious mental disorder 15 , 16 , in which the clinical and diagnostic criteria point to a pattern of excessive gambling.

This pattern of excessive gambling places the gambler in a spiral of increasingly important losses, given that the mathematical expectation is not favorable to the gambler. Pathological gamblers continue to play despite awareness that doing so will seriously harm them and their families, or entail problems with the law because of using illegal means to obtain the money with which to keep gambling.

This information on the negative effects of their pattern of excessive gambling is not enough to make them stop Gambling addicts are not able to control their gambling behavior. In most cases, they find it very difficult to stop playing, given that the disorder has made them dependent on the game, as occurs with addicts to substances of abuse The benefits are greater the more the gamblers play because the mathematical expectation is in favor of the gambling companies.

Therefore, it is in the interest of the companies to promote gambling through marketing and by ensuring that the games are easily accessible and readily available.

The defining feature of a problem gambler is not only the emergence of negative consequences but also the presence of a subjective sense of impaired control Self-report instruments can be used for evaluating problem gambling for research purposes as well as in clinical contexts 24 — With respect to the causes and the prevention of gambling disorder, two lines of evidence have been demonstrated.

Second, gambling policies are the main strategies for preventing excessive and gambling disorder Some of these strategies are:. Restrictions on the general availability of gambling. A meta-analysis of 34 studies made in Australia and New Zealand demonstrated the relationship between density of electronic gambling machines EGMs and gambling disorder Restricting more harmful types of gambling.

Not all forms of gambling are equally problematic 35 — EGMs are the form of gambling most often identified as creating the most problems in Japan 35 , Germany 41 , France 42 , and in many other Western countries Other forms of continuous gambling, as casino table games, are often demonstrated as the more problematic gambling in Asian countries 43 , Similarly to drugs, governments should include restrictions on the most addictive gambling.

In general, the risks for problem gambling are higher in gamblers in which the consumption is centered on games which have more rapid event frequency Player pre-commitment.

Consists of putting limits on time, frequency, or money prior to the start of play. In spite of the controversial results obtained in some studies in Canada, Australia, or Norway 46 , this has been due to methodological problems because of the many different ways it can be implemented mandatory or voluntary; revocable limits or not, different duration of limits, etc. Pre-commitment holds promise as a harm-minimization technique 47 , These facts highlight the need for the regulation of gambling and implementation of effective public health policies The core assumption of EG is that the environmental conditions—which are the main factors that cause gambling disorder—can be best achieved by means of gambling regulation using the findings of evidence-based research.

These actions are compatible and complementary to the implementation of prevention programs, similar to those that have been developed for the prevention of licit drugs tobacco and alcohol 50 — Advertising and marketing. Prevention of gambling addiction is incompatible with the promotion of excessive gambling Nevertheless, unlike tobacco and alcohol, which have restrictions on advertising, and there are campaigns to prevent their consumption 55 — 57 , gambling is a widely promoted activity.

For that reason, advertising and marketing techniques should be regulated through laws. As a general strategy, gambling advertising should be limited to gambling venues: bingo halls, casinos, bookmaking and betting outlets, and gambling websites in the case of online gambling. Some kinds of marketing techniques, such as bonuses and loyalty cards, should be banned. Opportunity to gamble: The main objective is to reduce the availability and accessibility of gambling to prevent the emergence of gambling addiction due to the relationship of these factors to gambling behavior and pathology This includes the following:.

Strategies to reduce availability : Limiting the number of casinos or game rooms and regulating the distances between gambling venues, authorizing gambling only in gaming rooms or casinos, and limiting online gambling companies and type of bets.

Strategies to reduce accessibility : Individuals must show reliable personal identification before being allowed to gamble all types , implementation of an Interdictions General Registry by which gamblers can limit their access to games anywhere in the country, and the use of passwords for all electronic games and online gambling.

However, the fact that many people gamble at non-problematic levels suggests that low-level exposure to gambling is not sufficient to induce gambling disorder in people with no pre-disposition to this syndrome. So, the threshold for refining gambling activities and policies around gambling should be set based on the likelihood that a vulnerable individual may begin to escalate their gambling behavior i. Game rules: These measures must directly affect the rules of the games themselves and the conditions in which they are presented, because structural and situation factors associated with gambling contribute to persistence in play and the development of excessive and problem gambling behaviors The government must establish a pool of specific measures, not only favoring an adaptive gambling pattern but also avoiding, as far as possible, the development of excessive and gambling disorder.

To satisfy that objective, the structural characteristics of the most addictive games should be modified according the scientific research 38 , 59 , Additional changes should be incorporated to remove or reduce factors that may promote chasing or otherwise aggravate or potentiate a pre-existing vulnerability to engage in excessive gambling.

The key measure proposed is a personal gambling smart card PGSD issued by the government that would be mandatory for all types of gambling. The PGSD would record all gambling wins and losses with the aim of preventing large daily, weekly, or monthly losses by blocking gambling for the rest of the day, week, or month when the gambler reaches the limit previously established by the government. In sum, EG is not meant to replace other concepts, such as RG; however, a different point of view with regard to gambling is necessary in order to prevent gambling disorder.

RG focuses on helping gamblers to be well-informed about the risks of gambling and the actions they can take to avoid addiction problems, as well as on how to create the appropriate conditions so that the gambler can play or stop playing freely 3.

The main problem with RG models is that they consider that gambler is the foremost answerable for their disorder, while placing little or no emphasis on harm-inducing gambling policies 6.

Consequently, gambling industry implements predatory gambling practices 60 that contribute to gambling-related harm. Ethical gambling also assumes the importance of information about the risks of gambling and the relevance of knowledge about the actions a player can take to avoid addiction. However, this is not sufficient because: a gambling is potentially addictive, b the conditions under which it occurs potentiate excessive gambling and the addictive effects of gambling, and c pathological gamblers cannot control gambling behavior by themselves.

The main solution is that the administration sets in place effective measures to prevent gamblers playing excessively and, in particular, to prevent them from losing excessive amounts of money. So, a different point of view with regard to gambling is necessary for several reasons. Second, a better understanding of the consequences of gambling may facilitate the implementation of preventative regulations that might otherwise be misunderstood and generate controversy, such as limiting the losses of gamblers.

Third, several gambling operators have obtained certificates for implementing RG measures because they recommend that customers gamble responsibly; however, at the same time, they use marketing strategies, such as bonuses and loyalty cards, that are particularly harmful for the most vulnerable gamblers, which misrepresents the meaning of RG.

Gambling policies must be adapted to the cultural and legal dictates of individual countries. Moreover, in democratic societies, principles such as those of EG should guide authorities to regulate gambling in a way that promotes healthy habits and prevents gambling disorder. Science should play a key role in gambling policies. For gambling companies and stakeholders, gambling is an economic activity that produces significant economic benefits; therefore, we stipulate that the government, rather than such companies, impose gambling regulations because it is unlikely that gambling companies will voluntarily enforce effective regulatory measures.

The profit margin of gambling operators is the gross gambling revenue GGR , which is the amount of money gamblers have lost, but a significant proportion of GGR is derived from problem gamblers.

According to Game Theory, gambling is a zero-sum game with the peculiarity that the outcome of the game always favors the one who manages the gambling. The only solution for the gambler is make the decision to stop gambling before losses become catastrophic or result in gambling disorder. The sine qua non condition is that public authorities uphold the right to health over the free market preventing the gambler from having large losses.

MC is the main author. He has developed the concept and he has proposed to the Spanish authorities a gambling regulation model in order to prevent pathological gambling. The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Public Health v. Front Public Health. Published online Jan Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Aug 8; Accepted Jan Keywords: pathological gambling, public health, ethical gambling, gambling policies, gambling addiction prevention.

The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

In order to be able to understand the concept EG, it is necessary to consider the following assumptions with regard to gambling 11 : a.

Actions Proposed The core assumption of EG is that the environmental conditions—which are the main factors that cause gambling disorder—can be best achieved by means of gambling regulation using the findings of evidence-based research.

Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Author Contributions MC is the main author. Conflict of Interest Statement The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. References 1. Gambling and corporate social responsibility CSR : redefining industry and state roles on duty of care, host responsibility and risk management.

Policy Soc 27 — Guest editorial: corporate social responsibility in controversial industry sectors. J Bus Ethics 4 —5. Responsible gambling: general principles and minimal requirements.

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Re: gambling definition elemental science

Postby Tezragore В» 27.02.2020

Prevention of gambling continue reading is incompatible with the promotion of excessive gambling Some casino games have a skill element, where the player makes decisions; such games are called "random with a tactical element. Addiction 1 definirion

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Postby Shasida В» 27.02.2020

Guest editorial: corporate social responsibility in controversial gambling sectors. Casino games provide a predictable games advantage to the casino, or "house", while offering such player the possibility of a large short-term payout. Aust N Z J Criminol 41 2 — Gambling and corporate social responsibility CSR : redefining industry and state free on duty of care, host responsibility and trailer simulator games management. Pre-commitment in gambling: a review of the empirical evidence.

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Postby Gardashura В» 27.02.2020

A pathway model of problem and pathological gambling. This includes the following:. According to Game Theory, gambling is a zero-sum game with the peculiarity that the outcome of the game always favors the one who manages the gambling.

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Postby Gardarn В» 27.02.2020

Cuijpers P. A game or situation in which the expected value for the player is zero no net gain nor loss is called a fair game. A meta-analysis of 34 studies made in Australia and New Zealand demonstrated the relationship between density of electronic gambling machines Definition and gambling disorder Gambling government must establish a pool of elementtal measures, not only favoring an adaptive science pattern but also avoiding, as far as possible, elemental development of excessive and gambling disorder.

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Postby Mikalmaran В» 27.02.2020

The house edge tells them what kind of profit they will make as gakbling of turnover, and the volatility index tells them how much they need in the way of cash reserves. Efficacy of anti-tobacco mass-media campaigns on adolescent continue reading use. Advertising and marketing.

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Theory of Games and Economic Behavior Vol. New York: Academic Press; Demographic and clinical features of pathological gamblers referred to a community addictions programme. Namespaces Article Talk.

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Postby Virr В» 27.02.2020

Here and corporate social responsibility CSR : redefining industry and state roles on duty of care, host responsibility and risk management. School-based drug prevention programs: a review of what works. Pachinko: a Japanese addiction? Among these go here, we find elementary and compound events, exclusive and nonexclusive events, and independent and non-independent events.

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Postby Moogurg В» 27.02.2020

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Postby Akir В» 27.02.2020

Regulating gambling to prevent addiction: more necessary now than ever. Effective ingredients of school-based drug prevention programs: a systematic review. In order to be able to understand the concept EG, it is necessary to consider the following assumptions with regard to gambling 11 : a. Int Gambl Stud 7 3 — Prevention of problem gambling: evidence and identified best practice.

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Postby Gusho В» 27.02.2020

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Postby Nicage В» 27.02.2020

Type of gambling and availability as risk factors for problem gambling: a Tobit regression analysis by age and gender. Science should play a key learn more here in gambling policies. With respect to the causes and the prevention of gambling disorder, two lines of evidence have been demonstrated. Silver MZ.

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Postby Zulkibei В» 27.02.2020

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Postby Faura В» 27.02.2020

Livingstone C, Woolley R. According to Game Theory, gambling is a zero-sum game with the peculiarity that the outcome of the game always favors the one who manages the gambling. Defjnition 97 — Online slot games often have a published Return to Player RTP percentage that determines the theoretical house edge.

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Postby Vishura В» 27.02.2020

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Postby Tejin В» 27.02.2020

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Postby Kajishakar В» 27.02.2020

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Postby Tunris В» 27.02.2020

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Postby Mubei В» 27.02.2020

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Postby JoJokasa В» 27.02.2020

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Postby Grokora В» 27.02.2020

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Postby Tauzilkree В» 27.02.2020

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Postby Mugami В» 27.02.2020

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