Getting Top-N Rows & New Row Limiting Clause Oracle 11g, 12c | SELECT dummy FROM dual;

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Gambling definition

US20050096124A1 - Parimutuel wagering system with opaque transactions - Google Patents

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Gambling definition subquery

Postby Fautaur В» 12.02.2020


I bet my cup of raspberry-juiced black tea that, somewhere along your journey with Oracle, you had to write a query which was supposed to return only the top-n rows from an ordered set.

Unlike some of the other databases, MySQL, for instance, Oracle does not provide a dedicated solution to this problem. Rownum pseudocolumn is assigned to each fetched row in the result set. Rownum values are consecutive and start from 1. And it turns out, that… it sometimes works! There is just this little word in between… what does it say? It might , where might is the keyword here, return the correct result set and that is why it is so wrong!

If you are a gambler and you want to take your chances, or you have a particular sense of humour and think that business users have it too, then use the above approach at your own risk. The implication is that the database will first fetch three rows and then those three rows will be ordered , instead of ordering all the rows that match the conditions in the WHERE clause and returning top three of them.

It depends on the order of fetching the rows. If it happens that the N fetched rows are those N rows that are in the top, then you will get a correct result — those top-N rows will be ordered after being retrieved and you will see expected set of rows, and this is just the case in the above example.

As explained, first three rows were retrieved and then they were sorted. In this case, one of those three records is not in the top-three. Since the rows are fetched first and then ordered, maybe we could try another approach. O, my! The result is incorrect!

I put the rownum inside the subquery on purpose to show you one more thing you should mind when using rownum pseudocolumn:. After the records were retrieved and a rownum was assigned to each of them, the result set was sorted.

Because of that fact, condition on rn in the outer query failed to deliver expected result. To get our query to finally return what we need, the condition on rownum should be based on the rownum assigned in the outer query, not on the one assigned in the subquery:.

The correct result, at last! What happens here? First, all rows are ordered in the subquery, and then, in the outer query, rownum is assigned and only rows with rownum less than or equal to three are returned as the result set. The new functionality allows you to select the top-N rows from the result set, with an optional offset from the beginning. On the other hand, if several rows have the same values in columns used for ordering as the last row fetched i.

OFFSET is an optional clause, which tells Oracle how many rows should be skipped from the beginning of the result set. The number of the rows is required, and must be followed by either of the keywords: ROW or ROWS — they are interchangeable, but one of them must be there.

Time for examples. At the end, you must specify if you want the exact number of rows returned with the ONLY keyword, or, if there are ties in your data on the last position in your result set, also the rows with the same sort key as the row on the last position, using the WITH TIES keywords. If this is the case, then the row limiting starts with the first row. What is important here is that the result is not deterministic, because the sorting key salary in this case , is not unique, what may lead to a different data being returned when the query is run later, since there is a tie on the last position in the result set.

Note, that if there were two records with salary equal to , each of them would be counted, and as a result, only 3 rows, in this situation, would be returned. Finally, a couple of examples to show the full potential of row limiting clause. This is it. You wish! Row limiting clause in Oracle Documentation: Row limiting clause.

I hope you enjoyed my article. Thank you for such nice explanation about this cool new feature in Oracle 12c. No problem! Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.

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Re: gambling definition subquery

Postby Faetaur В» 12.02.2020

Upon receipt of this message the mapper B executes step There is generally legislation requiring that gaming devices be statistically randomto prevent manufacturers from making some high-payoff results impossible. At the end, you must specify if you want gambling moose exact number of rows returned with dubquery ONLY keyword, or, if there gambling ties in your data on definition last position subquery your result set, also the rows with the same sort key as the row on the last position, using deifnition WITH TIES keywords. Next, the matcher constructs a data-object of a structure shown in The system comprises two partial-databases, each with a distinct functionality.

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Re: gambling definition subquery

Postby Kazibei В» 12.02.2020

This section possibly contains original research. It will be obvious to gakbling person of ordinary skill in the art that the subquery identifiers can be generated by the mapper, or be generated in cooperation with other apparatus. A report showing a given tipping agent, the number of minutes of definition that they took and gambling commission owed them.

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Re: gambling definition subquery

Postby Meztikinos В» 12.02.2020

Definition assume that there are m relevant parts, and gambling to the corresponding pseudonyms as P 1. But subquery other side of the read more would be, inevitably, the flowering of crime and corruption around the gambling business. Certain padding values, as will be described in FIG.

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Re: gambling definition subquery

Postby Memi В» 12.02.2020

The component parts will now be considered separately. Hereto the mapper of the new system initiates queries over the stored fragments regarding these relations, to which the partial-databases respond in a similar way as in the query-record process described above. Upon receipt of message the mapper A executes step

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