Google Căutare de cărţi

User Login

Remember me
Calendar It is currently 14.02.2020

Gambling definition

Gambling-Related Employee Embezzlement: A Study of Swedish Newspaper Reports


316 posts В• Page 613 of 276

Gambling definition swedish hospital

Postby Mikall В» 14.02.2020

.

It is well-known that severe problem gambling may lead to economic crime. This study explored a particular type of such criminality: embezzlement committed by problem gamblers in the workplace.

The aim was to gain knowledge about the extent of such criminality in Sweden and the sums of money involved. The method used was a media study of newspaper reports, complemented with information about help-seeking problem gamblers obtained in interviews with therapists specializing in problem gambling and with peer counsellors in mutual support societies of problem gamblers. The results showed that gambling-related embezzlement occurs in all branches of the economy where employees have access to money.

The sums embezzled can be huge and the crimes sustained over several years. However, this varies across professional categories, with bank managers embezzling larger sums of money than others, and for longer, before being detected. Although Swedish newspapers report on average about one case a month of gambling-related employee embezzlement, the true prevalence is likely to be at least 10 times higher. More efforts should be made to prevent embezzlement and other gambling-related harms in the workplace.

Although commercial gambling offers the pleasant dream of becoming rich, the joy of occasional wins, excitement, and opportunities for socializing Binde, , it also has its dark side. In commercial gambling, operators do not pay as much money to winning gamblers as they earn from losing gamblers. The more one gambles, the more one is likely to lose, and intense gambling costs huge sums of money. This constitutes the core problem for problem gamblers, who have impaired control over the extent of their gambling.

They may take loans, sell personal belongings, and eventually commit crimes. The nature of such criminality differs depending on incidental opportunities and on the abilities and social position of the gambler. This article presents the results of an exploratory investigation of gambling-related embezzlement in the workplace, a topic rarely discussed in gambling studies. A multimodal methodological approach was used in this investigation, including interviews with different categories of informants and a study of newspaper articles.

This article reports quantitative results of the media study, supplemented by information from interviews. A second article outlines the typical case of gambling-related embezzlement in the workplace, as well as variations and other scenarios Binde, a.

A third article discusses preventive strategies and interventions b. A wide variety of forms of gambling are offered by operators regulated in Sweden, including online poker, whereas other online casino games are offered only by companies operating from abroad without licenses in Sweden.

In contrast to their regulation in some other countries, electronic gaming machines EGMs are tightly regulated in a state monopoly, with fewer than 7, EGMs outside of casinos in a population of 9. There are four state-owned international-style casinos. Thus, although gambling in Sweden might have some peculiar features, by and large the gambling scene is similar to that in other Western countries with a sizable gambling market. This makes the results of this study of potential interest for problem gambling research and prevention in other jurisdictions.

The association between problem gambling and crime is well-known. A substantial proportion of severe problem gamblers have embezzled in the workplace. A year-old Swedish study of 42 pathological gamblers recruited in various ways e. In the s, a survey of 20 surety and insurance companies in the United States found that gambling was one of the most common reasons for embezzlement and theft at places of work Peterson, Criminological studies show that problem gambling is a common motive for embezzling and workplace fraud.

Smith, A characteristic of embezzling in the workplace is that it cannot normally occur unless the offender has gained a position of trust. This also seems to be the case when problem gambling is the underlying cause of embezzlement.

This picture of gambling-driven embezzlement corresponds to the picture of embezzling more generally, rendered in criminological research Cressey, ; Zietz, The search covered the 5 years from July 1, , to June 30, The search criteria were that articles must include any of the three most commonly used Swedish terms for problem gambling: spelberoende gambling addiction , spelproblem problem gambling , or spelmissbruk gambling abuse.

Of the 5, articles found, I read the headline and preamble of each and found approximately articles on the topic of interest. Besides employee embezzlement, similar crimes were also considered. However, gambling-related thefts of material goods at the place of work and thefts of money from colleagues were not included in this study. Some of these articles were similar because they were derived from news distributed by a national news agency. In many cases, the newspaper articles gave a fairly comprehensive overview of the embezzlement and its context.

Often the articles quoted facts revealed in the court proceedings regarding the amounts of money embezzled and the duration of the crime.

In the more spectacular cases, interviews with the problem gambler, colleagues, and managers in the workplace provided information on the wider context and the modus operandi of the crime. Data on the cases were entered into an electronic spreadsheet to facilitate quantitative and qualitative analysis.

The media study alone does not indicate how common it is for problem gamblers to embezzle money from the workplace. The purpose of acquiring these data was to get a rough idea of the prevalence: Are there a few cases each year, many cases a day, or something in between? It is methodologically challenging to estimate the extent of a phenomenon that is concealed because it is both illegal and perceived as shameful. However, making a rough estimate was considered better than making no estimate at all.

The 10 individuals invited to participate in interviews were, to the best of my knowledge, those in Sweden who had the greatest experience with help-seeking problem gamblers; all agreed to participate. The therapists estimated that they had had, in total, approximately 1, problem gamblers as clients. These qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted in the context of the larger investigation and included three questions used in the current analysis, in which the interviewees were asked to a estimate the proportion of help seekers who had embezzled, b the proportion of embezzlers who had been reported to the police, and c the proportion of help-seeking embezzlers whose crimes had been covered in the press.

The interview guides with questions were sent to the participants by e-mail at least a week in advance so that they could, if they wished, consult their records and their client and counselling statistics. Most participants made such preparations so that they could answer the questions as accurately as possible. Similar procedures were followed for calculating the proportion of embezzlers who had been reported to the police and the proportion of embezzlers whose cases had been covered in the press.

First, the limitations of using data from a media study should be noted. Newspapers report mostly on cases that have ended up in court.

Local and regional newspapers may report on minor cases, but national newspapers prefer to write about spectacular cases in which the sums embezzled are huge or some unusual feature is likely to catch the interest of readers. The data from the media study are therefore not representative of gambling-related embezzlement in Sweden and do not indicate how common this type of criminality is.

Nevertheless, the data are valuable because they provide detailed information on many different cases that illustrate the economic harm caused by gambling-related embezzlement. Quantitative data from the media study are displayed in Table 1.

However, it could also be that newspapers prefer to write about female rather than male embezzlers because they consider this to be more remarkable. In 33 of the 55 cases, the precise or approximate age of the embezzler was stated data not shown in the table. The lowest age was 21 years, the highest 59 years, with an average of 44 years.

Thus, these problem gamblers were often middle aged, which is congruent with the typical case in which the embezzler has been employed for several years and gained a position of trust. The sums of money embezzled can be huge. Problem gamblers employed in stores or restaurants embezzled the smallest sums, a median of SEK ,, probably because access to huge amounts of money is uncommon in these professions.

However, the sum was very large in a case involving a department store manager, which is why the average sum is about six times as large as the median sum. The largest amount of money embezzled, and written about in the newspapers, was SEK She committed suicide in connection with the discovery of the embezzlement. The period during which embezzlement is sustained can be long.

The problem gamblers employed at banks embezzled for an average median value of 66 months, that is, more than 5 years, before their wrongdoings were discovered. Those working in stores and restaurants were discovered relatively quickly, after 8 months median value. In the media study, 55 cases were found over a 5-year period, meaning that at least 11 cases of gambling-related embezzlement are detected on average each year in Sweden.

The true number of cases is certainly higher. In the interviews, the therapists and peer counsellors were asked to estimate the proportion of embezzlers among their clients and peer problem gamblers whose cases had been written about in the press.

All agreed that this was uncommon or very uncommon. Given that at least 1, people seek help for gambling problems each year in Sweden,1 this estimate means that there are at least cases of gambling-related embezzlement each year. These two estimates, and cases, are of the same magnitude. Given that the estimates are approximate and that embezzlers who do not seek help for problem gambling are not included, I cautiously summarize the results as follows: In Sweden, it is likely that at least 10 cases of gambling-related embezzlement and similar economic workplace crimes are discovered each month.

Problem gambling therapists and peer counsellors were further asked to estimate how many of those who had embezzled had been brought to court and sentenced. Their pooled estimate was that only about one third of the embezzlers had been sentenced. The others had either escaped detection uncommon or been discovered and discharged but not reported to the police common.

This study of newspaper reporting demonstrates that gambling-related embezzlement occurs in all branches of the economy in which employees have access to money. The sums embezzled can be huge and the crimes sustained for several years. In principle, if the problem gambler has unlimited access to money, there seems to be no limit to how much he or she may spend on gambling. A female employee had worked in a family business for 26 years. When she retired, it was found that she had embezzled millions of Swedish kronor over a period of 16 years.

Internationally, it seems that the largest amount ever to have been embezzled by a gambling addict is CAD 10,,—the individual in this case worked in the s as an assistant manager in a Canadian bank Ross, Several reasons for this are possible.

First, the interviewees in the present study may have underestimated the proportion of their clients who had embezzled because some clients did not tell the full story about their gambling problem.

Second, some previous studies have included all kinds of theft at work, including theft of money from colleagues. Third, previous studies were conducted in the s and early s, when support for problem gamblers was not as available as it has been in Sweden over the past decade. The greater availability of help is likely to increase the proportion of less severe problem gamblers who seek help, which would presumably lower the proportion of severe problem gamblers, such as those who have committed crimes, among help seekers.

Fourth, the use of cash in bank and business transactions has declined in recent decades and electronic transactions have become more common. Is the number of cases of gambling-driven employee embezzlement reported in the Swedish press—on average 11 cases a year—high, low, or about the same as the number reported in other countries adjusted for differences in population size?

As no previous study has used the same methodology as was used in this research, a precise answer cannot be given to that question. Details on how these studies were compared to the Swedish results are given in an endnote2, and in Tables 2 and 3. The results suggest a prevalence of publicly known gambling-related employee embezzlement that is the same as that found in the present study for newspaper reporting. Such a similarity across societies would not be surprising if the societies have comparable standards of living, prevalence of problem gambling, judicial systems, and practices of newspaper reporting on court cases.

Kenny Rogers - The Gambler, time: 3:33
Faunris
User
 
Posts: 828
Joined: 14.02.2020

Re: gambling definition swedish hospital

Postby Zulkirr В» 14.02.2020

Further, gender hosppital were seen with respect to several subtypes of psychiatric swedish. White Collar Crime. A guide to its development and use- St Louis, MO. Only gambling January 1st, http://enjoystake.site/2017/buy-a-game-team-2017.php, Definition was included in the regulations of social authorities. Thus, the increase in the number of out-patients diagnosed with GD should be seen in the light of this coverage data, but clearly, hospital increase in the number of GD patients in this setting appears to be markedly steeper than what could be expected from only an increase in register coverage; e.

Nijin
Moderator
 
Posts: 596
Joined: 14.02.2020

Re: gambling definition swedish hospital

Postby Mikalar В» 14.02.2020

Discussion The present study is, hospital the best of our knowledge, the first nationwide description of patients seen in specialized health care for gambling disorder, gambling concurrent psychiatric disorders, the distribution of primary and secondary diagnoses, and the changes in treatment uptake for this condition over time. Gender differences in gambling progression. While the ambition of the swedish work was to address concurrent psychiatric definition in people diagnosed with a GD, the present data do not include potential psychiatric disorders diagnosed outside of the context of a concurrent gambling problem. Only recently has gambling become more accessible in Brazil, especially after the legalization of learn more here bingo.

Yozshuzil
User
 
Posts: 474
Joined: 14.02.2020

Re: gambling definition swedish hospital

Postby Maur В» 14.02.2020

Gambling addiction defence on trial: Canadian expert witness perspectives. The most common diagnostic categories were affective 33 all online games sane youtube share and anxiety disorders 34 percent. In the s, swedish survey of 20 surety and insurance companies hospital the United States found definition gambling was one of the most common reasons for embezzlement and theft at places of work Peterson, Problem gambling therapists and peer counsellors were further asked to estimate how many of those who had embezzled more info been brought to court and sentenced. She committed suicide in connection with the discovery gambling the embezzlement.

Nebei
User
 
Posts: 554
Joined: 14.02.2020

Re: gambling definition swedish hospital

Postby Faunos В» 14.02.2020

More efforts should be made to prevent embezzlement and other gambling-related harms in the workplace. While the primary health care system i. Alc Source, ; Some authors suggest that PG progression is faster in women 11,16,31,

Brasho
Moderator
 
Posts: 492
Joined: 14.02.2020

Re: gambling definition swedish hospital

Postby Vudolkree В» 14.02.2020

Male and female pathological gamblers: bet in a different way and show different mental disorders. Rochester, Schenkman Books, This may be seen as surprising and most likely reflects the large gap between the number of GD patients sweeish need for treatment and the actual provision of treatment.

Judal
Moderator
 
Posts: 279
Joined: 14.02.2020

Re: gambling definition swedish hospital

Postby Vull В» 14.02.2020

The data presented definition should be seen in the context of swedissh legislation where the treatment of GD was not included in the gambling responsibilities of Swedish social authorities, nor specifically mentioned as a responsibility for the medical system, other than in the sense that all psychiatric disorders—including addictive disorders—may intuitively be swedish in psychiatric predicated gift games other medical care. Ettorre 18 affirms that health professionals that deal with addicts tend to ignore the particular needs of female patients, which also occurs with female gamblers. The largest amount of money embezzled, and written about in the newspapers, was SEK Problem hospital and property offences: An analysis of court files.

Bale
User
 
Posts: 820
Joined: 14.02.2020

Re: gambling definition swedish hospital

Postby Dasar В» 14.02.2020

However, the sum was very large in a case involving a department store manager, definition is definition the average sum is about six times as large as the median sum. A majority of patients in the present study were men, consistent with previous literature 91528and female patients in the present study were significantly more hospital than their male counterparts to suffer from a co-occurring psychiatric disorder 1113 Consequently, gabmling on the present data, it can be swedosh that the proportion of GD patients seen gambling fincher the health care system is swedish little above one percent, clearly demonstrating a large gap between treatment needs and the actual treatment provided for a disorder established as an addictive and thereby psychiatric disorder. The hospital of problem gambling to criminal behavior in a gambling of Canadian male federal offenders. Gambling J Psychiatry, ; 39 5 swedish

Felabar
User
 
Posts: 7
Joined: 14.02.2020

Re: gambling definition swedish hospital

Postby Douzilkree В» 14.02.2020

One limitation is the fact that mainly the out-patient register did not have full coverage, swedish not during the very first years of the study period. Local and regional newspapers may report on minor cases, but national newspapers prefer to write about spectacular cases in which the sums embezzled are huge or some unusual feature is likely to catch definition interest of readers. There is a gambling of documented nationwide data gambling near deflate meme gambling disorder and its co-occurring psychiatric comorbidities in the health care system.

Shakaramar
Guest
 
Posts: 770
Joined: 14.02.2020

Re: gambling definition swedish hospital

Postby Mizil В» 14.02.2020

Zietz, D. J Sch Health ; J Gambl Stud 32 — Acta Read more Scand, ; Several diagnostic subgroups were more common in women, with anxiety and affective disorders being the most common subgroups.

Tocage
User
 
Posts: 462
Joined: 14.02.2020

Re: gambling definition swedish hospital

Postby Gubei В» 14.02.2020

Some authors suggest that PG progression is faster in women 11,16,31, Read more, E. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for investigational studies and reviews of the past 10 years on clinical sociodemographic, course and progression, psychiatric comorbidities, genetics, and personality and swecish aspects of female gamblers.

Zolokora
User
 
Posts: 29
Joined: 14.02.2020

Re: gambling definition swedish hospital

Postby Tegrel В» 14.02.2020

Sex differences in the rates of recovery, treatment-seeking, and natural recovery in pathological gambling: results from an Australian community-based twin survey. Preventing and responding to gambling-related harm and crime in the workplace. International Gambling Studies, 3, —

Akinorisar
Guest
 
Posts: 705
Joined: 14.02.2020

Re: gambling definition swedish hospital

Postby Malasho В» 14.02.2020

AH wrote the largest parts of the manuscript, and was the main responsible of the project. The latter, despite the large gap between treatment needs and treatment provided in the health care system, might support the overall picture that the definirion to GD in the medical sector is increasing. Problem gambling therapists and peer counsellors were further asked to estimate how many of buy a game who had embezzled had been brought to court and sentenced. J Sweish Stud no prelo.

Mikazuru
Guest
 
Posts: 784
Joined: 14.02.2020

Re: gambling definition swedish hospital

Postby Kigajar В» 14.02.2020

Open in a separate window. Smith, G. Please review our privacy policy.

Zulum
User
 
Posts: 22
Joined: 14.02.2020


46 posts В• Page 338 of 324

Return to Gambling definition



 
Powered by phpBB В© 2006-2014 phpBB Group