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Toxic Masculinity, Casino Capitalism, and America's Favorite Card Game

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Gambling games masculinity

Postby Mikagami В» 07.03.2020

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Gambling is fast becoming a public health problem in the United States, especially among emerging adults 18—25 year olds. Some states have lowered their gambling age to 18 years old; in turn, the gambling industry has recently oriented their market to target this younger population.

However, little is known about the gender variation and the factors placing emerging adults at risk for getting engaged and developing problems with gambling. The purpose of the study was to determine the risk factors accounting for gender differences at the two levels of gambling involvement: engagement and problems. Mediation analyses revealed that impulsive coping and risk-taking were significant partial mediators for gender differences on engagement in gambling.

Men took more risks and had lower levels of impulsive coping than women, and those who took more risks and had lower levels of impulsive coping were more likely to engage in gambling. Risk-taking and social anxiety were the significant mediators for gender differences in problems with gambling. Men took more risks and were more socially anxious than women, and greater risk-taking and more socially anxious individuals tended to have more problems with gambling.

Implications for counseling preventions and intervention strategies are discussed. In the United States, problem gambling is recognized as a growing public health concern Jacobs ; Shaffer et al. Gambling opportunities also have rapidly increased, especially for emerging adults, 18—21 years old.

The transitional phase from ages of 18 to 25 years constitutes a separate period of the life course known as emerging adulthood Arnett A notable characteristic of this developmental period is the high prevalence of many types of addictions Baer ; Kahler et al.

Experts have suggested that emerging adults are at greater risk for developing gambling problems compared to adults; however, only a few studies have focused on this population of young adults Shaffer et al. In , Shaffer, Hall, and Bilt conducted a meta-analysis comparing the prevalence rates using the South Oaks Gambling Screen and found that college student gamblers had the highest prevalence rate of problem gambling compared to adolescents and adults.

Clearly more research needs to address gambling among emerging adults and the risk factors associated with both engagement and problem gambling.

Men and women have different levels of gambling involvement Stoletenberg et al. In a national telephone survey examining the demographic patterns of gambling participation in the United States, men gambled more frequently and had higher losses and wins Welte et al. Findings also indicated that 2. Winters et al. Gender differences seem to occur as early as young adulthood, but little is known about the risk factors accounting for these differences in gambling involvement.

What factors are placing men more at risk for gambling and for having more problems? To create more specific programs and accurately assess problem gamblers, it is important for clinical and counseling programs to consider the specific risk-factors that can account for these gender differences in gambling.

Impulsivity emerged as a major risk factor related to gambling involvement and behaviors McDaniel and Zuckerman ; Nower et al. Recent studies have investigated different aspects of impulsivity as separate risk factors for addictive behaviors Clarke Impulsive coping involves the tendency to act or to respond rashly when upset Cyders and Smith ; Zermatten et al.

Individuals who tend to be impulsive copers are more likely to engage in addictive behaviors, such as substance abuse, when faced with emotional distress Cyders and Smith Zermatten et al.

Impulsive coping also was associated with alcohol abuse Whiteside and Lynam and tobacco craving Billieux et al. Cyders and Smith found that impulsive coping was the only factor predicting increase in gambling behaviors. These findings strongly suggest that impulsive coping is a significant risk factor for gambling and gambling problems.

However, little is known about gender differences in impulsive coping as it relates to gambling. Two other aspects of impulsivity involve sensation seeking and risk-taking, and these also are major predictors of addictive behaviors Magid et al. Studies often have used these two types of impulsivity in an interchangeable fashion Zuckerman and Kuhlman ; Romer et al. Some researchers have referred to sensation seekers as individuals who search for novel, complex, and intense sensations and experiences McDaniel and Zuckerman ; Breen and Zuckerman Sensation seekers seem to be motivated mainly by engaging in new experiences to enhance physical sensations or arousal Zuckerman Sky-diving and bungee jumping are examples of highly novel and complex activities that are physiologically stimulating McDaniel and Zuckerman Cyders and Smith found that sensation seeking was positively related to gambling frequency.

Moreover, among college students, sensation seeking was positively related to engagement in gambling McDaniel and Zuckerman Risk taking, on the other hand, involves activities in which one must tolerate the possibility of great losses to obtain greater material or psychological gain Paunonen and Jackson The risky experience need not be novel or different in nature.

For example, placing a large amount of money into a business investment for monetary gains is considered very risky, but in this case, day-trading is an every day event involving repetitive activities. Neighbors et al. Clearly, more research is needed to clarify how these different aspects of impulsivity are related to gambling engagement and problems.

Men tend to have higher levels of sensation seeking and risk-taking than women Clarke et al. Nyber and Gregersen found that men were higher in sensation seeking and risk taking than women, and these factors mediated the gender differences on reckless driving. Consequently, the overrepresentation of men in car accidents has been related to sensation seeking and risk-taking Wagner Gender differences in addictions also are often explained through the higher levels of sensation seeking and risk-taking among men Dalton et al.

In a meta-analysis of studies, researchers found greater risk-taking among males than females with nearly half of the effects greater than. Brynes and colleagues suggested that risktaking and sensation seeking among men may explain their greater involvement in substance use, such as smoking and drinking.

In a study examining sensation seeking as a mediator of gender differences in smoking, men smoked more than women and sensation seeking was related to longer amounts of time spent inhaling while smoking which mediated the gender difference Zuckerman et al. Harris and Jenkins examined mediators for gender differences on four different domains of risky behaviors: gambling, health, recreation, and social.

They found that perceptions of severity of potential outcomes partially mediated gender differences on gambling. Specifically, men were more likely to perceive positive outcomes for gambling compared to women. Sensation seeking and risk-taking can explain gender differences in certain reckless and addictive behaviors. However, can these types of impulsivity also explain the gender differences in gambling involvement?

Even though women may have higher levels of psychological distress, young adult men may have higher levels of social anxiety compared to women Merikangas et al. There are unique social pressures for young adult men that may lead to involvement in addictive behaviors. Wells et al. Social anxiety also is related to other addictive disorders, such as alcoholism, drug abuse, food addiction and cigarette smoking Kayloe ; Regier et al.

Furthermore, social anxiety and other anxiety disorders often develop prior to the onset of these addictions Brady and Hartwell ; Merikangas et al. Xu et al. Men were more likely to use alcohol and illicit drugs to relieve symptoms of social anxiety disorder. Since gambling is a social activity McNeilly and Burke and emerging adult men may have higher levels of social anxiety, social anxiety may be the reason emerging adult men have higher levels of gambling involvement.

As such, social anxiety was examined as a possible mediator for gender differences in engagement in gambling and in gambling problems. Most of the research on addictive behaviors has focused on when these behaviors become problems or become pathological in nature.

However, this approach may overlook risk factors related to the progression into an addiction Zane and Huh-Kim Therefore, two levels of involvement are especially critical when examining addictive behaviors: a engagement in the addictive behavior gambled vs. This study examined gambling amongst emerging adults at these two levels of involvement.

The present study examined 1 gender differences at the two levels of gambling involvement: engagement and problems; and 2 if different aspects of impulsivity mediated or accounted for gender differences in gambling. Risk factors related to impulsivity for gambling engagement were investigated as well as risks for problem gambling. Given the major trends in gambling research, the study tested the following hypotheses:.

Gender differences in gambling engagement and gambling problems will be accounted for by specific aspects of impulsivity: impulsive coping, sensation seeking, and risk taking. Social anxiety also will mediate gender differences in gambling engagement and problems. The sample included college student respondents consisting of In this sample, Participant ages ranged from 18 to 20 years old with a mean of Participants were recruited from the psychology subject pools at the University of California, Davis and the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

There were no site differences related to gender. With respect to ethnicity, Gender and ethnic distributions of the university samples were similar to the demographics of the two campuses, with one exception of the Urbana-Champaign sample which had a larger representation of women. Participants completed a set of questionnaires consisting of self-report measures and a demographic questionnaire.

The SOGS-RA is a lifetime measure of the amount of negative consequences or disruption in various life domains for respondents as a result of their gambling behavior. Problem gambling behavior was represented by a dichotomous variable based on whether the individual had problems. Compared to the item adult version, the item SOGS-RA does not ask about specific sources of borrowing that may be less available to adolescents and young adults.

Each item is scored either 1 affirmative or 0 nonaffirmative. An overall score of 0—1 indicates no problems with gambling and a score 2—4 indicates problem with gambling. It was found to have adequate stability and internal consistency reliability Poulin The criterion for problem gambling was a score of two or more and the criterion for pathological gambling was a score of four or more.

The study assessed impulsive coping, sensation seeking, and risk taking. Impulsive coping was measured by the urgency subscale.

Urgency refers to an impulsive coping style focused on engagement in impulsive behaviors to reduce negative emotions e. The sensation seeking subscale of the UPPS refers to the tendency to enjoy activities that are exciting and a willingness to try new experiences that may be dangerous e.

Whiteside and colleagues validated this multidimensional model of impulsivity and found core aspects of impulsivity related to several forms of psychopathology, including problem gambling. The reliability for the urgency and sensation seeking subscales in this study were. The risk-taking subscale of the JPI is the most commonly used scale measuring risk-taking Carland et al.

The items consisted of true and false responses addressing risk-taking behaviors and risk preference e. Carland et al. The reliability for the risk-taking subscale was.

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Re: gambling games masculinity

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Postby Menris В» 07.03.2020

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